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In scripts with a case distinction, lower case is generally used for the majority of text; capitals are used for capitalisation and emphasis.

Acronyms (and particularly initialisms) are often written in all-caps, depending on various factors.

Basically, the two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and will be treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order.

Letter case is generally applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text.

The choice of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline.

In orthography, the upper case is primarily reserved for special purposes, such as the first letter of a sentence or of a proper noun, which makes the lower case the more common variant in regular text.

Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.

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Capitalisation in English, in terms of the general orthographic rules independent of context (e.g. Capital letters are used as the first letter of a sentence, a proper noun, or a proper adjective.

The names of the days of the week and the names of the months are also capitalised, as are the first-person pronoun "I" and the interjection "O" (although the latter is uncommon in modern usage, with "oh" being preferred).

Many other writing systems make no distinction between majuscules and minuscules – a system called unicameral script or unicase.

This includes most syllabic and other non-alphabetic scripts.